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Regulacje ONZ
Basic Principles on the Use of Force and
Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials,
Law enforcement officials shall not use firearms against
persons except in self-defence or defence of others
against the imminent threat of death or serious injury,
to prevent the perpetration of a particularly serious
crime involving grave threat to life, to arrest a person
presenting such a danger and resisting their authority,
or to prevent his or her escape, and only when less
extreme means are insufficient to achieve these
objectives. In any event, intentional lethal use of
firearms may only be made when strictly
unavoidable in order to protect life.
Wielka Brytania
Section 3 Criminal Law Act 1967 and Section
3 Criminal Law Act (Northern Ireland) 1967
‘A person may use such force as is reasonable in the
circumstances in the prevention of crime, or in the effecting
or assisting in the lawful arrest of offenders or suspected
offenders or of persons unlawfully at large’
„Manual of guidance on police use of firearms”
Oficer upoważniony do noszenia broni może użyć broni tylko,
jeśli wyczerpał inne środki lub jeśli te środki z natury swojej
będą nieskuteczne.
Oddawanie strzałów ostrzegawczych jest niebezpieczne –
może spowodować, że przestępcy lub inni oficerowie uznają,
że znaleźli się pod ostrzałem i będą reagować na takie
zidentyfikować i jasno ostrzec o intencji użycia broni z
zachowanie odpowiedniego czasu na reakcję, chyba, że:
• spowodowałby tym zagrożenie życia lub zdrowia innej
• byłoby to jasno niewskazane lub bezcelowe w istniejącej
Kodeks karny (Criminal Code), sekcja 25.3, 25.4 oraz 27
Subject to subsection (4), a person is not justified for he purposes of
subsection (1) in using force that is intended or is likely to cause
death or grievous bodily harm unless he believes on reasonable
grounds that it is necessary for the purpose of preserving himself
or any one under his protection from death or grievous bodily
A peace officer who is proceeding lawfully to arrest, with or
without warrant, any person for an offence for which that person may
be arrested without warrant, and every one lawfully assisting the peace
officer, is justified, if the person to be arrested takes flight to avoid
arrest, in using as much force as is necessary to prevent the
escape by flight, unless the escape can be prevented by reasonable
means in a less violent manner.
Every one is justified in using as much force as is reasonably necessary
• (a) to prevent the commission of an offence
 (i) for which, if it were committed, the person who
committed it might be arrested without warrant, and
 (ii) that would be likely to cause immediate and serious
injury to the person or property of any one; or
• (b) to prevent anything being done that, on reasonable
grounds, he believes would, if it were done, be an offence
mentioned in paragraph (a).
Nowa Zelandia
Crimes Act, 1961
48 Self-defence and defence of another
Every one is justified in using, in the defence of himself or another, such force as, in
the circumstances as he believes them to be, it is reasonable to use.
39 Force used in executing process or in arrest
Where any person is justified, or protected from criminal responsibility, in executing
or assisting to execute any sentence, warrant, or process, or in making or assisting
to make any arrest, that justification or protection shall extend and apply to the use
by him of such force as may be necessary to overcome any force used in resisting
such execution or arrest, unless the sentence, warrant, or process can be executed
or the arrest made by reasonable means in a less violent manner: provided that,
except in the case of a constable or a person called upon by a constable to assist
him, this section shall not apply where the force used is intended or likely to cause
death or grievous bodily harm.
 40 Preventing escape or rescue
„Manual of guidance on police use of firearms”
W żadnym wypadku nie można postrzelić przestępcy dopóki nie został wezwany do
poddania się, chyba że:
(a) w istniejących okolicznościach byłoby to niepraktyczne lub niebezpieczne
(impracticable and unsafe)
(b) jest oczywiste, że nie można go aresztować bez użycia broni palnej
(c) w istniejących okolicznościach odwlekanie aresztowania go byłoby niebezpieczne
lub niepraktyczne (dangerous or impracticable)
•2. Deadly Force
Law enforcement officers are authorized to use deadly force only
when it is reasonable and necessary to protect the officer or others
from an imminent danger of death or serious physical injury to the
officer or another person. If nondeadly force reasonably appears to
be sufficient to accomplish an arrest or otherwise accomplish the law
enforcement purpose, deadly force is not necessary.
Agencies should develop use of force policies that address use of
firearms and other weapons and particular use of force issues such
as: firing at moving vehicles, verbal warnings, positional asphyxia,
bar arm restraints, and the use of chemical agents.