• średnica [km]142 796
• masa (masa
• średnia gęstość
• czas obrotu9 h 55 min
30s okres orbitalny
(Ziemia=1 rok)11,86
• średnia odległość od
Słońca (mln km)778
• temperatura
• atmosfera bardzo gęsta
• księżyce16
Opis: Jowisz i jego cztery
największe satelity. Od prawej
Io, Europa, Ganimedes,
Callisto; Io -najbliższy
Jowiszowi, Callisto - najdalej
położony. Europa ma wielkość
ziemskiego Księżyca,
Ganimedes (największy
w całym Układzie Słonecznym)
jest większy od planet Merkury
i Pluton. Na powierzchni
Jowisza widoczna tzw. wielka
czerwona plama. Obraz Callisto
pochodzi z Voyagera z 1979,
obraz trzech pozostałych z misji
Galileo, badającej Jowisz
w 1995. Autor: NASA.
Odległość od środka
Jowisza:422 000 km
Okres obiegu wokół Jowisza:1
dzień 18h 29 min
Masa satelity:8,94 x 1022kg
Średnica równikowa
satelity:3630 km
Gęstość:3,57 g/cm3
Średnia temperatura
Składniki atmosfery:dwutlenek
Mimośród orbity:0,004
Jasność obserwowana:5,0m
Rok odkrycia:1610 rok
Odkrywca:Galileusz i Marius
Opis: Kratery i klify na
biegunie południowym Io.
Białawe obszary to
prawdopodobnie zmrożony
dwutlenek siarki zgromadzony
przy klifach, trzy ciemne plamy
są kraterami wulkanów
pokrytymi świeżą lawą.
Widoczny również sinusoidalny
kanał, łączący lewy dolny
krater z żółtawą wypływającą
lawą. Io jest aktywnym
wulkanicznie księżycem. Jego
aktywność jest generowana
wpływem Jowisza i innych jego
księżyców. Autor: NASA.
These frames detail the changes around Pele on Io, as seen by Voyager 1 (left), Voyager 2 (middle), and
Galileo (right). The Voyager frames were taken in 1979 when the two spacecraft flew past Jupiter and
it's moon Io. The Galileo view was obtained in June, 1996. Note the changes in the shape of the deposits
further from the vent while the radial dark features closer to the vent show little change. The Voyager
images use orange, blue, and violet filters. The Galileo image uses the green and violet filters of the
Solid State Imaging system aboard the Galileo spacecraft and a synthetic blue. All three images are in a
simple cylindrical projection and are approximately 1700 km x 1500 km. North is to the top.
his is a close up view of Io's
northern hemisphere. The central
feature has been named Loki
Patera. The large dark area might
be a lake of liquid sulphur with a
raft of solid sulphur inside.
Voyager 2 took this picture of Io on the evening of July 9, 1979, from a range of 1.2 million kilometres (745,700 miles).
On the limb of Io are two blue volcanic eruption plumes about 100 kilometres (62 miles) high. These two plumes were
first seen by Voyager 1 in March 1979 and are designated Plume 5 (upper) and Plume 6 (lower). They apparently had
been erupting for a period of at least four months and probably longer. A total of six plumes were seen by Voyager 2,
all of which were first seen by Voyager 1. Plume 1, the largest volcano viewed by Voyager 1, was no longer erupting
when Voyager 2 arrived. Plume 4 was not viewed on the edge of Io's disc by Voyager 2 and, therefore, it is not known
whether it was still erupting.
Fiery Io is the most
volcanically active body
in the solar system –
about a dozen volcanoes
on Io are active at any one
time. In this false-color
map, deposits of sulfur
dioxide frost appear in
white and gray, while
yellows and browns are
probably due to other
sulfurous materials.
Bright red and black
spots mark areas of
recent volcanic activity
and are usually
associated with high
temperatures and surface
Here is a close-up of
Tvashtar Catena, an
area of great volcanic
activity on Io. The
orange and yellow
ribbon to the left is a
cooling lava flow that
is more than more
than 37 miles (60
kilometers) long. The
image is a falsely
colored mosaic, as it
is composed of
pictures taken with
near-infrared, clear
This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false colour. North is at the top,
and east is to the right. Most of Io's visible surface is in shadow, though one can see part of a white
crescent on its western side. This crescent is being illuminated mostly by `Jupitershine' (i.e. sunlight
reflected off Jupiter).
The striking burst of white light near Io's eastern equatorial edge is sunlight being scattered by the
plume of the volcano Prometheus. Prometheus lies just beyond the visible edge of the moon on Io's far
side. Its plume extends about 100 kilometres above the surface, and is being hit by sunlight just a little
east of Io's eastern edge.
Scattered light from Prometheus' plume and Io's lit crescent also contribute to the diffuse yellowish
emission which appears throughout much of the sky. However, much of this emission comes from Io's
Sodium Cloud: sodium atoms within Io's extensive material halo are scattering sunlight at the yellow
wavelength of about 589 nanometres.
Seeing Red
This view of Callisto was
taken by the Galileo
spacecraft’s NearInfrared Mapping
Spectrometer. In this
false-color image, red
equals more ice and
blue equals less ice. The
large central crater is
about 120 miles (200
kilometers) across and
reveals a complex mix
of ice and non-ice
captured this
image of
Tvashtar, a
volcano on the
Jovian moon Io
on Nov. 25. The
lava is so hot, it
overexposed a
portion of the
image, seen as
the white
Small white diffuse halos surrounding
the darkest lava flows are probably
sulfurdioxide-rich snows and frosts
that have been vaporized by the hot lava.
Galileo scientists are now studying
whether heating of the volatile, sulfur
dioxide-rich plains by encroaching hot
lava might account for the persistent
plume activity observed near Prometheu
Galileo captured this
view of a 60-mile
100-kilometer) high
volcanic plume
in the Masubi region
of Io on July 3, 1999
These four Galileo
images from 1997 show
plumes of gas and dust
rising from Io's volcanoes
Zamana and Prometheus
Io has an amazing variety of
terrains: calderas up to several
kilometers deep, lakes of molten
sulfur (below right), mountains
which are apparently NOT
volcanoes (left), extensive flows
hundreds of kilometers long of
some low viscosity fluid (some form
of sulfur?), and volcanic vents.
Sulfur and its compounds take on a
wide range of colors which are
responsible for Io's variegated
Io's Nighttime Heat as seen by Galileo's Photopolarimeter-Radiometer
Odległość od środka Jowisza:1 883
000 km
• Okres obiegu wokół Jowisza:16
dzień 16h 33 min
• Masa satelity:1,08 x 1023kg
• Średnica równikowa satelity:4800
• Mimośród orbity:0,007
• Jasność obserwowana:5,6m
• Rok odkrycia:1610 rok
• Odkrywca:Galileusz i Marius
Callisto Asgard Region as Viewed by
This view of Callisto's Asgard multiring structure was taken by the Near
Infrared Mapping Spectrometer
(NIMS) 90 minutes before closest
approach. The false color image shows
surface compositional differences,
white=more ice, blue=less ice. The large
bright/white area is the palimpsest or
center of Asgard. The smaller bright
area is Tornasuk, a crater with a
diameter of about 70 km.
• Opis: Callisto - księżyc
Jowisza, zbudowany w połowie
ze skał, a w połowie z lodu
(zdjęcie o wzmocnionych
kontrastach, zrobione ze statku
kosmicznego Galileo).
Powierzchnia tego księżyca nie
zawiera śladów wulkanicznej
działalności, jest gęsto pokryta
rysami i kraterami. Blisko
środka zdjęcia widoczny krater
Valhalla, jeden z większych
kraterów uderzeniowych
w Układzie Słonecznym,
o średnicy ok. 4 tys. km.
Autor: NASA.
• Opis: Callisto hipotetyczny przekrój
poprzeczny. Pomiary pola
magnetycznego dokonane
przez Galileo wskazują na
możliwość istnienia pod
powierzchnią tego księżyca
Jowisza słonego oceanu.
Kolejne warstwy to: gruba
na 200 km warstwa lodu,
słony ocean o głębokości 10
km (jasnoniebieski prążek),
poniżej warstwa skał i lodu.
Autor: NASA.
A Chain of Impact Craters on Callisto
A portion of a chain of impact craters
on Callisto is seen in this image taken
by the Galileo spacecraft on November
4, 1996. This crater chain on Callisto is
believed to result from the impact of a
split object, similar to the fragments of
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 which
smashed into Jupiter's atmosphere in
July of 1994. This high-resolution view
is of Callisto's northern hemisphere at
35 degrees north, 46 degrees west, and
covers an area of about eight miles (13
kilometers) across. The smallest visible
crater is about 140 yards (130 meters)
across. The image was taken at a range
of 974 miles (1,567 kilometers).
Asgard Impact Structure on Callisto
This four-frame mosaic shows the ancient
impact structure Asgard on Callisto. This
image is centered at 30 degrees north, 142
degrees west. The Asgard structure is
approximately 1700 km across (1,056 mi)
and consists of a bright central zone
surrounded by discontinuous rings. The
rings are tectonic features with scarps
near the central zone and troughs at the
outer margin. Several large impacts have
smashed into Callisto after the formation
of Asgard. The very young, bright-rayed
crater Burr is located on the northern
part of Asgard. This mosaic has been
projected to show a uniform scale
between the four mosiacked images. The
image was processed by Deutsche
Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft-und
Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin, Germany.
In the highest resolution image
ever taken of Jupiter's moons,
the evolution of Callisto is
revealed. The bright, icy spires
are about 300 feet tall and
contain darker dust. The dark
material slides off the knobs and
collects in lower areas. Impact
craters, as seen in the lower
inset, imply Callisto is
geologically dead. Click to
Callisto's Valhalla Impact Structure
A portion of the central zone of the
large impact structure Valhalla on
Callisto was imaged by the Galileo
spacecraft on November 4, 1996. The
area shown here is centered at 16
degrees north, 55 degrees west and is
about seven miles (11 kilometers)
across. This is the highest resolution
picture ever taken of Callisto and shows
features as small as 200 feet (60 meters)
across. The formation of Valhalla
occurred early in Callisto's history;
however, the central zone shown here is
probably younger than Valhalla's
surrounding structure. This newly
acquired picture shows some small
craters, although they have been
softened or modified by downslope
movement of debris, revealing bright
ice-rich surfaces. In contrast to other
areas on Callisto, most of the very
smallest craters appear to have been
completely obliterated. (Courtesy
Arizona State University)
Gipul Catena
This image shows a chain of craters
on Callisto that is 620 kilometers
long. The largest crater is 40
kilometers across. This is the
longest of 12 or so such chains on
Callisto. The chain probably
formed from the collision of a
comet that was tidally disrupted
during close passage of Jupiter,
such as the comet Shoemaker-Levy
9. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton)
Callisto's Valhalla Region
This close up of Callisto
shows the heavily cratered
surface and the prominent
ring structure known as
Valhalla. It was acquired by
Voyager 1 on March 6, 1979.
Valhalla's bright central area
is about 300 kilometers
across with sets of concentric
ridges extending out to 1,500
kilometers from the center.
(Copyright Calvin J.
These cutaway views show the possible internal structures of the Galilean
satellites. Io is at the top left, Europa is at the top right, Ganymede is at the bottom lef
and Callisto at the bottom right. The satellites are shown at their relative correct sizes.
Io has a radius of 1,821 kilometers which is slightly smaller than the moon at a radius
of 1738 kilometers. Europa's radius is 1,565 kilometers, Ganymede's radius is 2634
kilometers, and Callisto's radius is 2403 kilometers. The surfaces of the satellites were
derived from image data taken by NASA's Voyager and Galileo spacecrafts. The
interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurement
taken by the Galileo spacecraft.
With the exception of Callisto, all the satellites have metallic (iron, nickel) cores
(shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. Again, with the exception of
Callisto, all the cores are surrounded by rock shells. Io's rock or silicate shell extends
to the surface, while the rock layers of Ganymede and Europa (drawn to correct
relative scale) are in turn surrounded by shells of water in ice or liquid form (shown in
blue and white and drawn to the correct relative scale). Callisto is shown as a relativel
uniform mixture of comparable amounts of ice and rock that extends up to a possible
salty ocean (shown in blue) beneath a thick icy crust (shown in white). The surface
layers of Ganymede and Callisto are shown as white to indicate that they may differ
from the underlying ice/rock layers in a variety of ways including, for example, the
percentage of rock they contain. The white surface layer on Europa could have similar
significance, although it could also suggest an ice layer overlying a liquid water ocean
Galileo images of Europa suggest that a liquid water ocean might now underlie a
surface ice layer several to ten kilometers thick; however, this evidence is also
consistent with the existence of a liquid water ocean in the past. It is not certain if ther
is a liquid water ocean on Europa at present.
Jupiter's moon Callisto
is thought to be the
most battered body in
the solar system. With
no major geologic or
eolian (wind) activity to
wipe craters away,
Callisto's surface gives
new meaning to the
word pockmarked.
Spectral studies show
that Callisto's crust is
composed of dirty water
ice. This shot is a
mosaic of images taken
by the Voyager 1 (left),
Voyager 2 (right) and
Galileo (center) probes.
Dane podstawowe:
Cel: Voyager 1 przelot koło Jowisza,
Voyager 2 przelot koło Jowisza, Saturna,
Urana i Neptuna.
Właściciel sondy: NASA.
Start: Voyager 1: 05 wrzesień 1977r. o
12:56 UTC
Voyager 2: 20 sierpień 1977r. o 14:29
Rakieta nośna: Titan III E-Centaur
Okno startowe: brak danych.
Odległość Ziemia - Jowisz: w 1977r ok.
1,5 mld km.
Koszt misji: jak dotąd 895 mln US Dane
Masa całkowita sondy: 815 kg.
Masa aparatury naukowej: 115 kg.
Moc generatorów RTG: 470 kW.
Wymiary sondy: ? x ? x ? m, średnica
anteny głównej 4 m, Magnetometr
znajduje się na końcu masztu długości 13
W odległości 721833,78 km sonda
Voyager 2 przeleciała w nad
powierzchnią Jowisza, była godzina
22:29:51 UTC.
Tego dnia o 12:05:26 czasu UTC
Voyager 1 przeleciał w pobliżu
Jowisza w odległości 349136 km od
powierzchni planety.
Voyager 1 przeleciał w pobliżu
Saturna o 23:46:30 czasu UTC w
odległości 186419,7 km od
powierzchni planety.
Program Naukowy
- Zbadanie zewnętrznej atmosfery Jowisza
i Saturna, a w szczególności zawartości w
nich wodoru i tlenu.
- Zbadanie siły pola grawitacyjnego
Saturna oraz jego największego satelity
- Stwierdzenie, co właściwie decyduje o
gwałtownych zmianach pogodowych w
górnych warstwach atmosfery Jowisza I
- Zbadanie jak wygląda iż czego się składa
powierzchnia największych, to jest tzw.
galileuszowych księżyców Jowisza.
- Zbadanie jaki mechanizm powoduje
wydzielanie znacznych zasobów energii (w
postaci promieniowania) przez Jowisza i
Saturna oraz jak oddziaływuje to
promieniowanie na powierzchnię
- Ostateczne z czego się składa
największego z księżyców Saturna Tytana.
Sondy VOYAGER posiadają także
aparaturę do badania tzw. plazmy
międzyplanetarnej, promieni kosmicznych
i pól magnetycznych.
Dane podstawowe:
Cel: Orbita Jowisza.
Właściciel sondy: NASA.
Start: 18 październik 1989
roku o 16:53:40 UTC.
Rakieta nośna: Prom
kosmiczny Atlantis STS-34
Okno startowe: brak danych.
Droga do pokonania: brak
Wejście na orbitę: 07
grudzień 1995 roku.
Koszt misji: brak danych.
Planowany koniec misji: 21
wrzesień 2003 roku.